|Issue||Naive Idea*||Scientific Idea|
|Interconnectedness||Some species live independently.||All animal species are dependent on other life forms for their survival. Species are highly interdependent.|
|Harmony||Organisms live in harmony.||Organisms compete with one another for resources and struggle to survive.|
|Continuity||Life is continuing today as it has in the past.||We are currently in the midst of the sixth major extinction of life on earth. Major extinctions typically eliminate 50-95% of all species.|
|Population||A population consists of all organisms living in a given geographical area.||A community consists of all organisms living in a given geographical area. A population is a group of interbreeding organisms.|
* A misconception or alternative idea has three primary features: it is a cognitive idea that differs in a significant way from the scientific idea, it is held by a sizable proportion of the population, and it is notably resistant to being taught away; it is often described as a conceptual primitive (Clement, 1982). There are many other types of errors in understanding besides misconceptions (Fisher & Lipson, 1986).
Clement, J. (1982). Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50 (1), 66 - 71.
Fisher, K. M. & Lipson, J. I. (1986). Twenty questions about student errors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23 (9), 783-803.