|Issue||Naive Idea*||Scientific Idea|
|Dormancy||Seeds and beans are dead.||Seeds and beans are generally alive but dormant, with a very reduced metabolic rate compared to an actively growing plant.|
|Photosynthesis||Seeds take things out of the soil to turn themselves into plants. Plants need sun, water, soil.||The dry weight of plants comes mostly from organic molecules constructed out of carbon dioxide from the air. Plants need sun, water, soil and air (CO2) for photosynthesis.|
|Respiration||Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide, while plants breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen .||Both animals and plants respire 24 hours a day, taking in oxygen to break down sugars and releasing carbon dioxide.|
|Respiration||Photosynthesis is respiration in plants.||Cellular respiration occurs in plants in the cytoplasm (glycolysis) and mitochondria (Kreb's cycle) simultaneously with photosynthesis, which occurs in the chloroplasts.|
* A misconception or alternative idea has three primary features: it is a cognitive idea that differs in a significant way from the scientific idea, it is held by a sizable proportion of the population, and it is notably resistant to being taught away; it is often described as a conceptual primitive (Clement, 1982). There are many other types of errors in understanding besides misconceptions (Fisher & Lipson, 1986).
Clement, J. (1982). Students' preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50 (1), 66 - 71.
Fisher, K. M. & Lipson, J. I. (1986). Twenty questions about student errors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23 (9), 783-803.